This book was written to have an idea about prostate specific antigen and its role in diagnosis of prostate cancer which is a common cancer in men.and one of the main leading cancer death allover the world. Prostate cancer is one of the treatable cancers, if diagnosed early. Prostate specific antigen is one of ideal tumor markers for early diagnosis motoring prostate cancer, although it is not specific, but the isoforms of this markers are now used to increase the diagnostic utility of this marker.
Prostate Cancer is the second most common cancer that affect men after lung cancer. The cause of prostate cancer is largely unknown but the risk of developing it increases after the ages of 50 and 40 years among Whites and Blacks respectively. Prostate cancer develops very slowly, takes several years to manifest and often spreads to other parts of the body with very low cure rates by the time of diagnosis. Actually, most men die with this cancer and not of it. The survival rate of prostate cancer is between 5 and 10 years for all stages of the disease. Early detection of prostate cancer before it becomes clinically significant, markedly improves cure rates. Two screenings for prostate cancer; Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)test are recommended annually for men 40 years and older for early detection and prevention of prostate cancer. Diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruits, avoiding excessive meat eating and alcohol abuse may reduce a man's risk of prostate cancer. Your health care provider can give you more information about prostate screening and prevention of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer, presents a high incidence worldwide and represents the second cause of cancer related deaths in men, after lung cancer. At present, the only noninvasive procedure used for prostate cancer early diagnosis is the measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen in blood. Since its introduction in 1982, it has been demonstrated that the mortality due to prostate cancer has been reduced. But, recently the use of serum PSA has been questioned because it has a low accuracy, especially regarding the specificity. In prostate cancer, new noninvasive diagnostic approaches are needed to replace the standard techniques. Molecular biomarkers has been demonstrated that play an important role in the diagnostic of some cancer types such as lung cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, and breast cancer and prostate cancer. Recently, a number of studies have shown the usefulness of molecular biomarkers in the early diagnosis and recurrence prediction in prostate cancer patients.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis.. Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing. However, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Loss of PTEN and concomitant activation of AKT could act in partnership with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein to promote progression to prostate cancer through downstream pathways that increase the selective advantage of pre malignant prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells.
Optical spectroscopy and imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light provides powerful tools for non-invasive detection of cancer in tissue. This book focus on a study to distinguish the cancerous prostate tissue from the normal prostate tissues with enhancement of specific receptor-targeted prostate cancer contrast agents using optical spectroscopy and imaging techniques. The scattering and absorption coefficients, and anisotropy factor of cancerous and normal prostate tissues were investigated first as the basis for the biomedical diagnostic and optical imaging. Understanding the receptors over-expressed prostate cancer cells and molecular target mechanism of ligand, two small ICG-derivative dye-peptides, namely Cypate-Bombesin Peptide Analogue Conjugate (Cybesin) and Cypate-Octreotate Peptide Conjugate (Cytate), were applied to study their clinical potential for human prostate cancer detection.
Prostate cancer incidences in Africa are on the rise, presenting with it a lot of challenges. In Ghana, prostate cancer is the commonest and the leading cause of cancer mortality in males. It is believed that alcohol consumption in the early stages of life may be a risk factor for developing prostate cancer. This belief is based on the evidence that alcohol may act as a carcinogen itself or may modulate the risk from other carcinogens through several known mechanisms. Notwithstanding, studies of this kind hitherto had not been explored in the African context. In this study, the relationship between drinking behaviour at the youthful ages of life and the risk of developing prostate cancer were explored.
The incidence of prostate cancer has been steadily rising for the last 40 years, and it is continuing to rise as life expectancy increases with improved living conditions across the developing countries. Prostate cancer progression and its ability to respond to hormonal therapy is determined by the status of androgen receptor expression.The expression of these receptors are associated with prognostic factors of prostate cancer like Gleason scores. This book provides vital information about the androgen receptor expression and Gleason score, age of the patient, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) values for use by the clinicians to determine the prognosis of this cancer. It is therefore a must read book for; pathologists, urologists, post-graduate students, researchers and other clinicians especially in resource restrained countries.
Prostate health can become a serious issue for men in their middle age. According to recent statistics, prostate enlargement is found in 50 percent of American men in their sixties, and up to 90 percent of men in their seventies and eighties. Worse, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death by cancer in men, with about 80 percent of all cases of prostate cancer occurring in men over sixty-five.Even though the prostate seems to be an older man's health problem, these imbalances begin much earlier in life. The good news is that following an appropriate diet and routine and taking appropriate herbal supplements can all help keep the prostate healthy and functioning well.
Prostate cancer reigns as one of the top 3 most common cancers and one of the deadliest cancers among American men, coming behind only lung cancer as the group’s second leading cause of cancer mortality. No demographic has borne the weight of the disease more than the African-American male demographic and 65 and older male demographic. Prior knowledge and ongoing research strongly suggests that this disparity can largely be attributed to the types and degrees of activities, consumption, and exposures that are associated with the numerous affected demographics within the US. In the literature, diet’s association with prostate cancer is analyzed, specifically the possibility of a correlation between phytoestrogenic (predominately found in soy-based products) intake and prostate cancer risk, with the effects of race, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other dietary factors taken into account in the analysis.
Prostate Cancer is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The median age at diagnosis is 68years and the disease incidence escalates sharply with increasing age. The natural history is still relatively unknown and many aspects of progression are poorly understood .Clinically localized disease varies from lower-grade tumors having a more indolent course to high-grade lesions that progress to metastatic disease with relative rapidity. Prostate cancer is most treatable and curable if caught in the earliest stage of the disease. Staging is an important part of developing the best treatment. Choosing a treatment option involves the patient, his family, and one or more doctors. It needs multidisciplinary oncology doctors of prostate cancer specialists as an urologist, a radiation oncologist, and a medical oncologist. The optimal management of prostate cancer that is clinically confined to the prostate remains controversial. Standard treatment options for localized disease include Radical prostatectomy, Radiation Therapy and watchful waiting management.For metastatic prostate cancer it becomes far harder for complete cure.
Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and in Palestine. The use of different treatment options helped prostate cancer survivors to get cured or to live for longer periods of time. Because of the several complications of treatment modalities, issues related to quality of life (QOL) became highly important to help prostate cancer survivors to live and experience a higher level f quality of life. Many studies examined QOL of prostate cancer survivors and barriers to health care; but none was conducted in a developing country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of QOL and to assess the barriers to health care utilization as perceived by prostate cancer survivors who live in Gaza Strip. Findings revealed that prostate cancer survivors living in Gaza Strip had lower QOL scores compared to those reported in the literature. Besides that, several barriers to health care utilization were reported by participants. Therefore, it is important for health care providers and health care policy makers to work on improving their QOL and removing barriers to health care utilization.
These study explores on the relationship between Polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase M1, T1 which is a family of cytosolic enzymes involved in the detoxification of various exogenous as well as endogenous reactive species and the risk of prostate cancer in the Iraqi patients.The present study was included 35 Iraqi men who were diagnosed as prostate cancer patients. the age of the patient ranged from 40 to 86 years. and 25 Apparently healthy men, blood sample were collected Frome the Gazhi Alhariri hospital(in Baghdad),during the period from November, 2012 to may,2013.blood group, Age, family history, smoking were analyzed to observe any relationship between theme and prostate cancer to taken in account as risk factors.
Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in men and one of the leading causes of cancer related death. In view of the increasing number of patients with prostate problems as the prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among the Sudanese population, and due to difficulties in the trans-rectal ultra sound (TRUS) biopsy taken which is unpleasant for the patients, this book aimed to achieve the evaluation of Serum Prostatic acid Phosphatase (PAP), Total Prostatic Specific Antigen (TPSA) and Free Prostatic Specific Antigen (FPSA) as markers of prostate cancer in Sudanese patients. This study concluded that determination of FPSA/TPSA ratio improves differentiation of PCa from BPH when serum Total Prostatic Specific Antigen level of 4 to10 ng/ml. and recommends a cut-off value of 18% to be applied to Sudanese patients to decide whether to biopsy the prostate.
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in USA. Proper management of disease requires better understanding of mechanisms involved in cancer growth and proliferation. Statins were shown to have beneficial effects in cancers, as proven by the many clinical trials supporting the evidence. Our research studied simvastatin effects and molecular mechanisms affecting prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We showed that simvastatin affected proliferation, colony formation and migration, in both androgen-dependent and –independent human prostate cancer. In vivo effects were supportive with a reduction of tumor size in proper experimental models. Mechanisms of effect of simvastatin on cancer cell micrometastasis were also studied using ECIS, gene arrays, adhesion assays immunocytochemistry and western blotting and showed its effects on integrin and endothelial barrier. The effect of combining simvastatin with docetaxel was also studied and showed promising results. In conclusion, our pre-clinical research shows beneficial effect of simvastatin alone or in combination with docetaxel in the management of prostate cancer and prevention of micrometastasis.
Following the international success of Your Life in Your Hands, the groundbreaking book on breast cancer, Professor Jane Plant explains how her diet and lifestyle plan can be used to combat prostate cancer. This revised and updated edition includes new information to help those with other types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer and testicular cancer. In this groundbreaking book, Professor Plant illuminates the relationship between cancer and diet. The book explains the science behind the 'no dairy' diet and then gives useful advice on diet and lifestyle to maximise your health and avoid contracting cancer. For sufferers, their families and anyone who is concerned about the risk of cancer, this book is essential.