Periodontitis is one of the most prevelant disease affecting about 10 to 15 percent of population worldwide. Dentist are constantly challenged with treating patients for existing conditions and helping them prevent future occurrences. Apart from standard treatments including oral prophylaxis and surgical intervention for periodontitis, dental health professionals in recent years have honed in on the inflammation that accompanies periodontitis. The real culprit with inflammation is oxidative stress, a disturbance in the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Systemic factors such as a balanced nutrition or nutritional supplementation have not been thoroughly evaluated in periodontal research, although reports of the possible effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation have appeared early in the periodontal literature. This book provides an insight towards the role of antioxidants as an adjunct to periodontal therapy.
This book titled 'Risk Factors in Periodontal Disease' will serve as a useful guide to various graduate and post graduate students to understand the concept of Risk Factors and their association with periodontal disease. The authors have classified and elaborated all the risk factors, risk indicators risk markers and risk determinants in detail and their association with periodontal disease. A section on risk assessment has also been added in order to help dentists identify and evaluate various risk factors in patients in clinical practice.
There is strong evidence that free radical production in coronary artery disease patients plays an important pathophysiological role. Antioxidants play a vital role in preventing oxidative stress and free radical production. Indirect evidence of the effects of free radicals in coronary artery disease status may be obtained by comparing antioxidant concentrations, because serious damage by free radicals implies insufficiency of the body’s multilevel defense systems against free radicals.The present study suggests that estimation of serum vitamin C, ceruloplasmin and PON1 activity may be used as an indirect evidence of oxidative stress induced atherosclerosis in coronary artery disease. Serum antioxidant activity may be an important factor in providing protection from oxidative stress in coronary artery disease. Thus evaluating the effects of vitamin C, ceruloplasmin and PON1 activity in CAD patients may be promising in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Intracellular enzymes are increasingly released from the damaged cells of periodontal tissues into the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva. It has been a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and predicting the early onset of disease (prognostic tests) or evaluating the disease activity and the efficacy of therapy.Various enzymes evaluated for the early diagnosis of periodontal disease are aspartate and alanine aminotransferases ( AST, ALT ), lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ), creatine kinase ( CK ), alkaline and acid phosphatase ( ALP , ACP ) and gamma glutamiltransferase ( GGT ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ). The activities of CK, LDH, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, ACP, MPO, enzymes are found to be increased in periodontal diseases. Thus, an attempt has been made to review the diagnostic value of salivary enzymes in the diagnosis and progression of periodontal disease.
Cytokines-the cell regulators of the immune system take the lead in the pathogenesis of the disease.They exert both destructive as well as protective immune responses locally, and if uncontrolled, cause systemic effects.Periodontitis, a multifactorial disease,occurs by increased bacterial burden,risk factors and altered host response. Cytokines, as valuable markers of tissue breakdown aid in diagnosing periodontal disease status as well as susceptibility to the disease.These signalling molecules can be detected and quantified by immune bioassays thus acting as one of the important advanced diagnostic tools in periodontal diagnosis.
Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the connective tissue attachment and supporting bone around the teeth.It is widely accepted that the initiation and the progression of periodontitis depends on the interaction between varios virulent microorganisms and the host.There is a bewildering array of biological markers that have been, and continue to be,identified and associated with the disease progression.Cytokines are group of such markers which are present in saliva GCF & other body fluids.Literature says,Cells dont talk but they whisper..Cytokines are molecular messengers that acts between cells during various immuno chemical reactions and interactions.Interlukin8 is one such chemoattractant cytokine that plays a major role in recruiting Poly morphonuclear neutrophils to the site of inflammation.IL-8 activates various ICAMS and can facilitate transendothelial migration of neutrophils.The study regarding the role of IL-8 in periodontal diseases have been equivocal.As it is highly associated with the first line of defence of human body,we can go in depth to find its significance as a biological marker that can indicate the progression of periodontal diseases
The role of Antioxidants in disease prevention is a widely discussed subject, attracting attention from professionals in all areas of medicine.This book provides a great wealth of most current information for readers highlighting new discoveries in the areas of oxygen and nitric oxide metabolism, redox regulation, identification of natural antioxidants, their mechanism of action on free radicals and their role in health and disease. The amazing nutrients guard against cancer, diabetes, heart disease and even slow the ageing process. This book also unveils the astonishing strength of antioxidants for treatment of potentially malignant disorders and burning mouth syndrome.
Various studies on microbiota shown the etiological role of specific periodontal pathogens and especially anaerobic microorganisms in developing destructive periodontal diseases. this book emphasise on the historical aspects, various classifications based on the health and disease status and especially it explains in detail of various anaerobic microorganisms in its morphology, cultural characteristics and its pathogenic role in periodontal diseases.
The concept of free radical damage and antioxidants have gained rapid popularity in the last decade. Almost all the physiological processes right form aging to psychological stress involves the damage to the body by free radicals. Consequently anti oxidants are finding place in almost all preventive, palliative and curative therapies. There is a definite role of oxidants and free radical damage in case of all infectious diseases. There is a good amount of work done by various researchers on the oxidative stress. There are number of research publications available on this subject. However the information is scattered and full of controversial findings on the utility of antioxidants in health and disease. Further there is growing interest in the use of herbal antioxidants evident from the fact that markets are flooded with various antioxidant formulations.This book is an attempt to compile this information in sequential manner so as to give a broad idea regarding the status of research concerned with the role of antioxidants in health and disease.
Periodontal disease is a infectious disease causing inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth leading to progressive attachment loss and bone loss. Specific plaque hypothesis plays an important role in the specific bacteria causing periodontal disease. The goal of antimicrobials in treating periodontal disease is to eliminate or suppress the potential pathogens in the oral cavity.The chapters in this book emphasis on biofilm, Systemic antibiotics ,antiseptics,natural products, local drug delivery, and host modulating agents.This book is useful for under graduates, Post graduates and dental professionals.
Periodontitis is a disease characterized by loss of connective tissue attachment and bone around the teeth in conjunction with the formation of periodontal pockets due to the apical migration of the junctional epithelium.Early diagnosis and treatment of progressive periodontitis is important because of the irreversible nature of this disease. Traditional clinical measurements used for periodontal diagnosis are often of limited usefulness in that they are indicators of previous periodontal disease rather than present disease activity. There is a need for development of new diagnostic tests that can detect the presence of active disease, predict future disease progression and evaluate the response to periodontal therapy, thereby improving the clinical management of periodontal patients. This book discusses the role of oral bio-markers in the diagnosis and progression of periodontal disease and describes the role of GCF ?-Glucuronidase levels as a diagnostic tool and measure of treatment outcome in patients with chronic periodontitis.
There exists a two-way relationship in which periodontal disease in an individual may be a powerful influence on an individual’s systemic health or disease as well as the more customarily understood role that systemic disease may have in influencing an individual’s periodontal health or disease. Therefore, oral health is an important component of general health, and individuals with periodontitis may be at risk for other diseases as well. The impact of oral infection on systemic health thus defines the new branch of periodontology termed “periodontal medicine”.
To our knowledge, this is one of the first attempts to examine the influence of salivary melatonin upon periodontal disease. Data from this study suggest that melatonin may be able to protect the oral cavity against free radicals produced by inflammatory diseases. Further research with adequate sample power is required to fully elucidate the relationship between salivary melatonin and its influence on periodontal health. Thus this study amply justifies the role of melatonin in the control of periodontal disease and the conclusions drawn could be useful in generating further studies. Results are expected to evolve solution to highly prevalent periodontal disease, particularly in developing country like India.
Immunology is a relatively new science. Despite over 40 years of research into the immunology of periodontal disease the role of T-cells remains an enigma. Although periodontal disease is caused by bacterial infection, the resulting tissue damage is due to the immune response. Therefore this book is an attempt to provide a paradigm for understanding the role of immune system in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.
Diabetes is a progressive and life-threatening disease with potentially devastating consequences for health. The associated complications are retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, altered wound healing and periodontal disease. Conditions which exhibit altered tryptophan metabolism are patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, renal failure, hypertension or diabetes and periodontal disease. The role of metabolites of tryptophan via kynurenine pathway has been speculated in type 2 diabetes due to its anti-insulin action. In this study the salivary levels of tryptophan and its metabolites were estimated to assess their impact on the severity of periodontal disease in diabetic individuals by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. This study showed that a relation existed between severity of periodontal disease and levels of salivary tryptophan and its metabolites. This may add an insight towards the development of periodontal disease in type 2 Diabetes mellitus individuals and kynurenergic agents may act as new treatment modalities for such cases.