Book describes selection of software reliability models. Numerous models have been developed, but which one should be used, is still a challenging area for software managers. Software development life cycle based classification of models and particle swarm optimization employed for parameter estimation has made selection an easy task. The main goal of this book is to develop deterministic & quantitative models for software reliability model selection. A set of model selection criteria have been employed in an integrated manner for evaluation, comparison and optimal selection of software reliability models. Students will find the book both stimulation and accessible, while researchers will be guided smoothly through the material required for good grasp of the theory and application of these models. Pointers to relevant literature ensure that it forms an ideal starting point for further study.
In the early phases of software development, failure information is not available to quantitatively measure reliability of a software product. This book discusses the need and various methods of quantifying the software reliability in early stages. Currently there is no consensus on approaches for reliability analysis of software owing to the challenges in data, modeling and analysis of these systems. In this book, emphasis is given for applicability of software metrics for quantification of software reliability.The book also discusses some of the previous work in this direction. In addition, techniques such as Bayesian Belief Network and expert elicitation were also discussed from the framework of software reliability prediction. This book attempts to establish a link between theory and practice of software reliability methods for any software product
Software Reliability Engineering quantifies the software failures. Software failures may be due to errors, ambiguities, oversights or misinterpretation in the Software Development. Thus the reliability of software is compromised by system failures. The Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM) is a tool, which can be used to evaluate the software quantitatively, develop test status, schedule status and monitor the changes in reliability performance. Software Reliability models have been developed to estimate the fault content, failure rate and fault removal rate per fault in software and to predict the reliability of the software at the release time.
Developing a reliable software system, several issues need to be addressed. These issues include the definition of reliable software, reliable development methodologies, testing methods for reliability, and reliability growth prediction modeling. Many software reliability growth models were proposed with the goal to estimate the number of residual software faults, which occur in the software testing process. In this thesis, we explore an alternative approach using two types of neural networks (NN) models, the feedforward and the Radial basis function. We also use of fuzzy rules. NNs have been used both to estimate parameters of a formal model and to learn to emulate the process model itself to predict future faults. Feedforward and Radial basis function have been successfully used to solve a variety of prediction problems, which include real-time control, military, and operating system applications. A set of fuzzy rules were also developed to model the dynamics of the software reliability growth models in various applications. The reported results using neural networks and fuzzy logic can improve the software reliability growth modeling solution.
Software Reliability is one of the important aspects of computer software which can be taken into consideration when determining the quality of the software. Building good reliability models is one of the key problems in the field of software reliability. A good software reliability model should give good predictions of future failure behavior, compute useful quantities and be widely applicable. Software Reliability Growth Models (SRGMs) are very important for estimating and predicting software reliability. An ideal SRGM should provide consistently accurate reliability estimation and prediction across different projects. However, that there is no single such model which can obtain accurate results for different cases. Thus, combining some individual SRGMs than single model is helpful to obtain more accurate estimation and prediction. Several combinational methods of SRGMs have been used to improve the reliability estimation and prediction accuracy.
In order to motivate the incorporation of reliability concepts in the structural design and analysis procedures, the engineering community is in need of finite element (FE) software with capabilities of including the stochastic nature of input parameters. This book focuses on the modeling of uncertainties in structural systems and on strategies for the reliability assessment of structures analyzed by FE programs. Concepts are introduced for the numerical treatment of spatially varied uncertain quantities through the discretization of the relevant random fields as well as for robust and efficient finite element reliability analysis and updating of the reliability in light of new information. The presented reliability methods are termed non-intrusive, since they can be programmed in a stand alone fashion without requiring access to the core routines of the FE software.
Use of software application in this modern computer era is inevitable and it has become the part and parcel of several processes that exists in the world. Computer system consists of hardware and software parts and serve the common man to a researcher in his day to day activities. Various software applications are being developed to cater the needs of endless software or automation requirements. There are rigid requirements in terms of growing down time and failure free operation of software applications. Unreliable and inconsistent software applications results in terms of huge economic losses or risk to human life. Therefore, software reliability is one of the key attribute to be addressed in the software applications to reduce down time and failures. The new model presented in this book is aimed at addressing complete range of software applications. The software reliability determination model shall be used to predict the reliability of full-scale range of the software applications. This model uses the concept of reliability factors, which modifies the actual hazard rate of the software based on its configuration or installation environment.
In the recent past, there has been a rapid surge in the usage and reach of embedded applications. Embedded applications are now being used in different fields ranging from home appliances to even safety-critical areas such as health-care instruments, avionics, etc. Embedded systems used in safety-critical applications are required to have far greater reliability than conventional applications. Developing effective regression testing techniques for evolving embedded software is a problem of practical significance. Improved regression testing techniques will help to improve the quality of embedded software, and will also help reduce software maintenance costs. This book talks about improved regression testing techniques for embedded software. More specifically, we discuss regression test selection and optimization approaches suited for embedded software.
Over last three decades many Software Reliability Growth Models (SRGMs) have been proposed for estimation of reliability growth of products during software development process. Each model could be shown to work well with a unique data set, but no model appeared to do well on all data sets. Now the question is which model we should use? Selection of optimal SRGM for use in a particular case has been an area of interest for researchers in the field of software reliability. Till now, there is no such method that takes the weight of comparison criteria in selecting the appropriate model. All existing methods consider each comparison criteria with equal priority. But in real scenario, different criteria have different impact in measuring the software reliability. In order to remove this flaw, this book presents a technique known as "Weighted Criteria Method" for optimal selection of SRGMs. Weighted criteria method uses the weight of each criterion to calculate the overall value of the model or model permanent value. These values of models are used to compare and rank the models.
Practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics Engineers in the telecommunications industry must be able to quantify system reliability and availability metrics for use in service level agreements, system design decisions, and daily operations. Increasing system complexity and software dependence require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation than those available in the current literature. Telecommunications System Reliability Engineering, Theory, and Practice provides a background in reliability engineering theory as well as detailed sections discussing applications to fiber optic networks (earth station and space segment), microwave networks (long-haul, cellular backhaul and mobile wireless), satellite networks (teleport and VSAT), power systems (generators, commercial power and battery systems), facilities management, and software/firmware. Programming techniques and examples for simulation of the approaches presented are discussed throughout the book. This powerful resource: Acts as a comprehensive reference and textbook for analysis and design of highly reliable and available telecommunications systems Bridges the fields of system reliability theory, telecommunications system engineering, and computer programming Translates abstract reliability theory concepts into practical tools and techniques for technical managers, engineers and students Provides telecommunication engineers with a holistic understanding of system reliability theory, telecommunications system engineering, and reliability/risk analysis Telecommunications System Reliability Engineering, Theory, and Practice is a must-have guide for telecommunications engineers or engineering students planning to work in the field of telecommunications Telecommunications System Reliability Engineering, Theory, and Practice is a must-have guide for telecommunications engineers or engineering students planning to work in the field of telecommunications.
The decision of an optimum project portfolio selection in the area of project management, is frequently encountered in the business environment. On a purely organizational level, this decision must take into account the uncertainties in the calculation of many criteria as the expected revenue from the investment, profitability, resource availability, labor skills, perspectives and know how. This survey addresses the above questions using an adequate software tool, and provides the methodological framework for the modeling of such business decisions; furthermore, it demonstrates the feasibility and the reliability of the proposed approach and corroborates its findings with a realistic example. The research will be oriented to the concept of an article by Reyck et al (2005) that recommend not ‘‘doing projects right’’ but ‘‘doing the right projects’’.
Over the past few years little had been done in relation to fashion modeling in Zimbabwe. Fashion modeling faced serious challenges due to limited knowledge on the training requirements of modeling. Among the major challenges are the negative attitudes of the society towards modeling. Most people in Zimbabwe viewed modeling as an indecent profession hence less support is given to fashion activities. Modeling agencies lacked well established training facilities and selection standards were not well standardised.Fashion followers and lovers should concientise the Zimbabwean society and assist fashion modeling training institutions.
An evolutionary process currently taking place in engineering systems is the shift from hardware to software where the role of software engineering is becoming more central in developing large engineering systems. Software productivity has been steadily increasing; but it is still not enough to close the gap between the demands placed on the software industry and what the state of the practice can deliver. A Unified Lifecycle model, integrating the three aspects of software lifecycle: the product, process and project views of software development is presented. Quantitative modeling of software processes are systematically developed, addressing all phases of the lifecycle. AHP methodology is used to rank order the suitability of different lifecycle models for a new development project. Distinct lifecycles for reuse based development and software maintenance are adapted from ULM. The ‘development for reuse’ strategy generates reusable components that are organized and stored in a reuse library. The selection-decision of candidate components from this library for reuse is derived using Rough and Fuzzy sets.Process models are optimized using Design of Experiments and Taguchi Methods.
This book provides procuring activities and development contractors with an understanding of the history, concepts and principles of reliability. It will be helpful to the researchers for the development and applications of reliability. It should be pointed out that this book covers only background and basic concept of reliability; it is not intended to cover software reliability and planning. Further, a brief introduction of COPULAS is also presented as it is applicable to many real world problems.
The first book to cover Agile Modeling, a new modeling technique created specifically for XP projects eXtreme Programming (XP) has created a buzz in the software development community-much like Design Patterns did several years ago. Although XP presents a methodology for faster software development, many developers find that XP does not allow for modeling time, which is critical to ensure that a project meets its proposed requirements. They have also found that standard modeling techniques that use the Unified Modeling Language (UML) often do not work with this methodology. In this innovative book, Software Development columnist Scott Ambler presents Agile Modeling (AM)-a technique that he created for modeling XP projects using pieces of the UML and Rational's Unified Process (RUP). Ambler clearly explains AM, and shows readers how to incorporate AM, UML, and RUP into their development projects with the help of numerous case studies integrated throughout the book. AM was created by the author for modeling XP projects-an element lacking in the original XP design The XP community and its creator have embraced AM, which should give this book strong market acceptance Companion Web site at www.agilemodeling.com features updates, links to XP and AM resources, and ongoing case studies about agile modeling.